Domain I: Organizing Reading Instruction Based On
Ongoing Assessment

There are approximately 65-70 multiple choice questions on the RICA exam. These include both content questions, in which knowledge about reading and reading instruction is directly assessed, and contextualized questions that assess the candidate’s ability to apply specific knowledge, to analyze specific problems, or to conduct specific tasks related to reading instruction. Approximately 20% of the question assess competencies in Domain I.

MULTIPLE CHOICE PRACTICE


1. As Jack is reading a text sample, he reads "The dog ran to the horse" rather than what the text actually states, "The dog ran to the house". What type of strategy would be the most effective to utilize with this student?

(a) Praise the student for reading so well.

(b) The word read in error is written on a flashcard and Jack practices the word over and over.

(c) After Jack finishes the reading, he should be given some time to retell what he has just read. If Jack does a good retelling, and the word in error didn’t disrupt the meaning of the text, there is no need to go back over the error.

(d) After the student has read the text sampling, the recorder asks the student to look at the sentence again, reads the sentence as Jack read it and then asks the question: "Does that make sense? Let’s look at the word carefully, letter-by-letter"

2. Jill is having difficulty in hearing rhyming words. During an informal evaluation, her teacher found that Jill couldn’t tell that "fish and dish" were rhyming words. When the teacher tried several other rhyming and non-rhyming word pairs verbally, Jill couldn’t discern the rhyming pairs. Her answers were all "No, they don’t sound the same". Which instructional strategy would be the best to meet Jill’s needs ?

(a) Jill should read several books that have rhyming patterns.

(b) In a small group of other children who also need more experiences in rhyming patterns, the teacher directed-teaching instruction will follow a game format. The games will vary in the usage of rhyming words.

(c) The instruction should be based on worksheets that have the student match rhyming words across columns as an independent activity.

(d) Jill should have spelling words that are sets of rhyming words so that she can concentrate on the letters. Her spelling words should be written repeatedly in order so that Jill will be able to see the letter patterns in each of the spelling words. Her spelling test will then be conducted at the end of the week to make sure that she can spell and write all the words, as she recognizes each of the words, as the test is conducted orally by the teacher.

3. The school district is requesting that each school site report the reading progress of each class at the Grade One level. A miscue analysis will provide the data needed. The district would like to know the instructional level average of each class. Each teacher will administer the evaluation process. What will be the most effective usage of the information from copies of the miscue analysis on each of your students?

(a) This information will be used to average in reading grades for the upcoming report card.

(b) The teacher will be able to take these scores and put them in the student’s portfolio, as an indicator of how well each student reads. No follow-up miscue analysis is necessary, until the school district requests the data again.

(c) The data from the miscue analysis will provide a basis for instructional strategies needed for each student on an individual basis. The data can also be utilized to provide information for placing students in small reading groups according to need.

(d) The classroom curriculum should be based on the teacher’s manual for the language arts program. All students should be in the same text as well as the same story during the reading /language arts period of the school day. The miscue analysis will point out the students who need to do more re-reading in each reading unit.  

 
4. Danny is doing very well in his reading, but his teacher has noticed during the small group readings, that he seems to have difficulty in identifying medial sounds in unknown words. What is one type of evaluation that would aid the instructional process to meet Danny’s needs?

(a) A reading running record on an unfamiliar text would give a clearer picture of which phonic strategies Danny is using correctly and the ones which need to receive more attention.

(b) A spelling test of unknown words will tell how Danny hears the words and writes them down.

(c) As Danny reads, the teacher should listen to what Danny does as he reads to see if he consistently doesn’t know how to decode the medial sounds of unknown words. The teacher’s evaluation could then decide whether he needs to be put in a different reading group with an easier level text.

(d) Administration of a sight word test would help the teacher identify the words that the student doesn’t know. These words are the common ones that have medial sounds that are not usual. This would help the student in decoding other unknown words as well.

5. Maria is in kindergarten. She is having difficulty in remembering the letter names of the alphabet. Her teacher has asked the parents to help at home. The parents are agreeable, but they want to know which letters they should concentrate on. What can the teacher do to best identify which of the letters Maria needs help with?

(a) Maria is asked to look at out-of-order alphabet cards which have one letter (upper case) per card. The teacher asks her to identify it. The lower case letters are done one by one in the same manner.

(b) Maria is asked to look at an alphabet book, and the teacher utilizes it to evaluate the letters known and unknown.

(c) The teacher asks Mary to tell her the letters she knows orally. Then the teacher writes them down as the known letters. Those not mentioned by Maria are the ones she cannot identify.

(d) A paper with all the letters in sequence, upper and lower case, is shown to Maria. She is asked to find the letters that she knows and then to point to each letter she knows and say its name. This aids the teacher in identifying the letters known and unknown.

6. As you listen to a student read, you are evaluating his/her reading behavior. Which characteristic would be most representative of an effective reader?

(a) Phonics and a good sight vocabulary are evident in the students reading.

(b) The student self-corrects one of every three errors made during the reading of the text.

(c) Rather than attempt to utilize any reading strategy, the student omits unknown words.

(d) The student is able to predict good substitutions for unknown words

7. Anne is reading within the independent reading level range for her grade level, although she reads at a very slow rate. Often she is not done with her reading assignments because she is taking a lot of time to get through a text. This often interferes with her comprehension of reading materials. What would be one way to check her fluency rate?

(a) Anne should be given a reading text at her independent reading level and then timed. During the fifteen minute timed period the average is computed of words per minute, setting a base line number from which to increase her reading fluency.

(b) Anne should read an entire story, silently, in class and have it timed. This would establish how long it takes her to read an average story assignment.

(c) A timed test of a list of sight words would gauge Anne’s reading of words per minute.

(d) Reading texts from Anne’s independent, instructional, and frustrational level should be utilized for fifteen minute read-aloud samples. Then the averages of words per minute would produce a median number which would report Anne’s fluency level of reading.

8. Several students in Mrs. Sanders’ class are having trouble with hearing a word and then not being able to separate the sounds that they hear. For example when each student was individually asked to separate the sounds of a word, such as "man", the response was "mmm - an". The first sound was the only isolated sound expressed. She needs to further assess this need for this student group. Which test would best give direction and a focus for Mrs. Sanders’ instruction?

(a) Yopp Singer Segmentation Test

(b) Dolch Sight Word Test

(c) The RAD Test

(d) Reading Running Record

9. Which area of phonemic awareness would be the best to gauge with the Yopp Singer Test?

(a) rhyming

(b) blending speech sounds

(c) sound segmentation

(d) manipulation of phonemes

10. What would be a good assessment tool to utilize in checking on students during silent reading?

(a) Teacher would serve as a role model and observe students’ reading from her place where she is reading.

(b) As the students are reading, the teacher roves around the room and places her hand on a student’s shoulder, the student reads aloud from the place he/she is at in the reading. This serves as an observation tool to gauge whether the student is engaging in the text and if it is at the students independent reading level.

(c) After each silent reading period, five students are scheduled to present a report about his/her reading for the day.

(d) A group discussion is held after the silent reading period to determine how well the students attended to reading during this time.

11. What would be the best strategy for assessing a student’s knowledge of concepts about print?

(a) On a 1:1 basis, the student is given a book and asked to follow directions and demonstrate the concepts about print.

(b) Watch the student during silent sustained reading.

(c) During a whole class shared reading session, on a random basis, a student would be asked a question regarding concepts about print.

(d) While conducting a small/guided reading group each student would be asked a question regarding concepts about print. 

12. In order to teach various reading levels, necessary to meet the needs of students in a classroom, how would you organize the class time to meet with each group?

(a) All students study and read the same story. The groups take turns meeting once a week to discuss the story, while the others are doing silent reading.

(b) During cross-age buddy reading, the teacher observes how each partner group is doing with his/her reading to meet the students reading needs.

(c) The teacher selects a small, randomly selected group of students each day to read from any book he/she chooses from the class library during the math period.

(d) Small, flexible reading groups, based on the students’ instructional reading level, are set-up to meet with the teacher as the literacy center rotation system is implemented during the language arts period.

13. How would you ensure that students in your class can select a book from the class library at his/her own independent reading level?

(a) The books in the library are separated in some manner (different tubs, color coded, etc.) by levels of reading, easier levels to more difficult reading levels.

(b) Ask the students to find for books that match the type of reading that they see in the books read in the guided/small reading group.

(c) Students are to be given free choice, as they can automatically pick a book that is at their own independent level.

(d) Each student receives instruction about the characteristics of books at his/her independent level. Then the student selects a book that matches the characteristics.

14. Which of the following strategies would not be the best strategy to increase a student’s fluency level?

(a) Reading a lot of books at his/her instructional level

(b) Rereading familiar stories

(c) Books at frustrational level should be reread until the student can read each word of the text

(d) Buddy reading with a cross-age tutor


15. Which element would you want to make sure is part of your small/guided reading group plan for the week?

(a) Include frustrational level readings

(b) As an introduction to an instructional level book, prior knowledge is assessed regarding the story subject

(c) To meet once a week for reading

(d) Change the students to different reading groups daily

16. What is not a purpose for a group/shared reading?

(a) To increase listening comprehension

(b) To learn concepts about print

(c) To gauge individual phonemic awareness

(d) To introduce higher level vocabulary words

17. Which strategy would not demonstrate an integration of reading and writing?

(a) A verbal retelling of a favorite story during sharing time.

(b) Each student is to write a description of one of the settings from a story that has been studied in the guided/small reading group.

(c) A graphic organizer is utilized to display the sequence of events in a story.

(d) After the reading of a story during a shared/group reading, each student is asked to write a story extension.

18. Independent reading level texts should be utilized with which reading periods or groupings?

(a) During a shared reading

(b) During guided reading

(c) During silent reading

(d) During testing with running record assessment

19. Instructional reading level texts should be utilized with which reading periods or groupings?

(a) During a shared reading

(b) During guided reading

(c) During silent reading

(d) During independent reading

20. Which of the following strategies would gauge students’ prior knowledge of a subject?

(a) At the end of a story, ask the students what parts they didn’t understand

(b) Reciprocal Teaching

(c) Directed Reading Thinking Activity

(d) KWL Chart

21. The topic web organizer would not be a suitable support strategy for which classroom assignment?

(a) Pre-writing

(b) Story comprehension

(c) phonemic awareness

(d) Creating a character summary

22. HDIAZ is a writing sample that would place the student at which spelling stage?

(a) Pre-phonetic

(b) Phonetic

(c) Transition

(d) Conventional

23. I gt to se kt is a writing sample that would place the student at which spelling stage?

(a) Pre-phonetic

(b) Phonetic

(c) Transition

(d) Conventional

24. Thay wulde be working in their jurnells. is a writing sample that would place the student at which spelling stage?

(a) Pre-phonetic

(b) Phonetic

(c) Transition

(d) Conventional


25. My favorite part of this book is when the cat put on his boots and then he talked to the king about his master plan. is a writing sample that would place the student at which spelling stage?

(a) Pre-phonetic

(b) Phonetic

(c) Transition

(d) Conventional

26. How can a retelling be beneficial to gauging reading comprehension?

(a) An oral gauge of prosody usage by the student

(b) Student recall of story elements is made apparent

(c) Aids a teacher in observing a student’s speech and listening skills

(d) Highlights the key point of summarization skills

27. Which of the following is NOT an important element for the value of a book introduction?

(a) Establishes prior knowledge of book topic

(b) Reviews concepts about print

(c) Provides children with the opportunity to share their own experiences that pertain to the subject

(d) This strategy is to be utilized with books at students’ frustration level.


29. Concepts about print is constructive in building a child’s sense of:

(a) the parts of a book and word/letter recognition

(b) how a book is published

(c) how to use the library reference center

(d) the various types of print styles which exist in various books

30. The type of reading comprehension that utilizes a written text (story or single sentences) with some blanks for the filling in of an appropriate vocabulary word or term is called:

(a) Sight word recognition test

(b) Yopp-Singer Segmentation Test

(c) Retelling measurement

(d) Cloze test

31. In assessing your students’ knowledge and understanding of vocabulary words or terms in a reading (narrative or expository), using the Cloze procedure, which reading strategy will be most relied upon?

(a) Sentence structure

(b) Contextual clues

(c) Phonemic Awareness

(d) Prosody

32. Which type of reading instructional strategy would best meet the needs of a class introduction to the reading elements of concepts about print?

(a) Independent reading

(b) Guided reading

(c) Shared reading

(d) Silent reading

33. Elkonin boxes are best utilized to meet the needs of students who, after evaluation, require more support in the area of:

(a) Phonics

(b) Rhyming

(c) Phoneme Manipulation

(d) Phoneme Segmentation

34. In order to assess spelling, the most effective manner in which the teacher can evaluate the student’s prior knowledge is to:

(a) give an oral spelling test to the whole class

(b) give a written pre-test to each student

(c) conduct a random check throughout the classroom

(d) give a test at then end of a week-long spelling study unit

35. In assessing the spelling strategies that a student uses and confuses in his/her writing, what would be the best strategy to evaluate each member of your class?

(a) Administer a qualitative spelling test with leveled word lists

(b) Administer the spelling test included at the end of a reading unit to check on the words that the student needs to review

(c) Administer a miscue analysis evaluation

(d) Administer a phonemic awareness evaluation

36. The alphabetic principle is:

(a) phoneme recognition

(b) individual letter matches an individual sound

(c) upper case letter recognition in order

(d) lower case letter recognition

37. Observations of a student’s oral language usage are important. The classroom organization should be set up to accommodate as many opportunities for students to use oral language. The following are ways to implement these opportunities, except for:

(a) Discussion during shared reading predictions

(b) Verbal retelling of a story

(c) Sharing Time presentation

(d) Reporting an answer from a worksheet

38. Gauging the listening comprehension of a student can be accomplished through several avenues. The most effective would be a 1:1 administration of...

(a) a reading running record

(b) random questioning after a shared reading

(c) phonemic awareness test

(d) a retelling checklist

39. Maria participates in her reading group, but she does not really want to read when it comes to independent reading. This is very noticeable during silent reading time in class. Which of the following would be the best instrument for determining why Maria doesn’t like to read?

(a) Reading Attitude Survey

(b) Cloze Procedure

(c) Sight word test

(d) Phonemic Awareness Test

40. A student who exhibits an understanding of concepts about print, uses pictures as clues to the story line, and can recognize and write some high-frequency words both in and out of context is at which reading level?

(a) Emergent

(b) Early

(c) Fluent

(d) Mastery

41. A student who is less reliant on illustrations for clues, is beginning to use a number of meaning-making reading strategies and check graphophonic detail is at which reading level?

(a) Emergent

(b) Early

(c) Fluent

(d) Mastery

42. A student who reads chapter books, summarizes stories, and demonstrates strategies for problem-solving in reading is at which reading level?

(a) Emergent

(b) Early

(c) Fluent

(d) Mastery

43. Miss Davis wants to evaluate her Kindergarten students’ knowledge of the correct way to turn pages of a book and can identify the front and back cover book parts. What is she evaluating?

(a) Familiarity with hard-back books

(b) Concepts about print

(c) Student knowledge of how to keep pages from tearing

(d) Gauging whether a student can be given a book to use during library time

44. A kindergarten teacher would like to evaluate her students’ comprehension, individually, after she does a picture walk with a wordless, picture book. How can she implement this evaluation?

(a) Oral Retelling

(b) Question and answer session

(c) Have the student draw a picture

(d) Administer a miscue analysis

45. Planning a language arts section in your daily classroom organization should include a variety of student groupings. Which would be the best to accommodate students with the same instructional reading needs?

(a) Small, flexible groupings based on student instructional needs

(b) Whole class instruction using one text

(c) Small groupings of students with each student at a different reading level

(d) Small groupings based on independent reading levels

46. In a third grade classroom, a few students are having a difficult time with detail and main idea comprehension concepts. The teacher could use all of the following comprehension strategies to meet the needs of the students, except:

(a) graphic organizers

(b) shared readings

(c) K-W-L charts

(d) phonics inventory

47. Mr. Jones has already planned for reading assessment of his second grade class when it begins in September. He has a choice of the following testing instruments which will give him individual information about the student’s usage of literacy strategies during an oral reading, except for:

(a) reading running records

(b) miscue analysis

(c) phonics inventory

(d) IRI

48. The students in Miss Lee’s classroom are very active readers. She has a concern for not having enough time to do a full miscue analysis or reading running record with each student on a daily basis. The following are some useful informal measures that she can utilize on a daily basis to measure her students’ instructional, independent and frustration reading levels, except for:

(a) oral retelling

(b) word sorts

(c) observation notes during guided/small group reading

(d) observation of student reading during buddy/partner reading time

49. Environmental print is very important in the emergent reader classroom (Grades K - 2). What would be the best definition of environmental print?

(a) It supplies the basis to teach "color" words

(b) It represents print concepts that depict national environmental awareness programs

(c) It is defined as the words parents have taught their child from reading texts within the home environment

(d) It supplies the purposeful meaning to words/logos that have established prior knowledge through community exposure to print

 
50. In phonemic awareness, the term "blending" means:

(a) saying a word after hearing the separate sounds of the word

(b) identifying all the blends in words written on flashcards

(c) on a phonics inventory the blending sounds (in isolation) are assessed

(d) putting syllables together to make a word

51. In phonemic awareness, the term "phoneme segmentation" means:

(a) to separate a word into syllables

(b) to write a word and separate it into sounds with separation lines

(c) to see a word on a chalkboard and then identify the sounds with the letters

(d) a student is able to orally give the sounds within an orally given word

52. In phonemic awareness, the term "phoneme manipulation" means:

(a) the word is written on the board and then the letters are moved around to display new words

(b) sounds are used for rhyming

(c) a verbal directive to change the letters of a word and the student gives the word, orally, that is a result of the changes

(d) letters are changed around on the chalkboard and when a "real" word is recognized, the teacher writes it on a poster titled "Real Words"

53. During the assessment evaluations of each student, Mr. Stark has noted the accuracy reading rates of each student. The accuracy rate of a student who can read between 90 - 94 percent of the words will be at the:

(a) Frustration level

(b) Instructional level

(c) Independent level

(d) Early level

54. During the assessment evaluations of each student, Mr. Stark has noted the accuracy reading rates of each student. The accuracy rate of a student who can read above 95 percent of the words will be at the:

(a) Frustration level

(b) Instructional level

(c) Independent level

(d) Early level

55. During the assessment evaluations of each student, Mr. Stark has noted the accuracy reading rates of each student. The accuracy rate of a student who can read below 85 percent of the words will be at the:

(a) Frustration level

(b) Instructional level

(c) Independent level

(d) Early level

56. During a shared reading, Mrs. Rivas points out the rhyming word pairs throughout the story. During the "checking for understanding" portion of the lesson, she notices that a few of her students are not really understanding the concept of rhyming words. What type of assessment tool would be the most effective to gauge these students’ level of rhyming knowledge?

(a) phonics inventory

(b) sight word test

(c) cloze test

(d) phonemic awareness evaluation

57. All testing instruments have a key focus. Which of the following is a testing tool which records coding of a student’s oral reading, and gauges the student’s errors and self-corrections in the context of the cueing systems: graphophonics, syntax, and semantic:

(a) sight word list

(b) cloze test

(c) standardized test

(d) running record

58. A reading attitude survey would provide a teacher with the following information about a student, except for:

(a) types of books he/she likes

(b) how the student feels about reading

(c) student comprehension level of books read at home

(d) how the student feels about reading aloud

59. In consideration of the language arts standards established by California’s School Board, the S.T.A.R/SAT - 9, Form T has been instituted for all students in Grades 2-11 in this state. The following types of student reading assessments would be helpful to parents when they accompany the review of reading scores from this standardized test, except for:

(a) retelling comprehension checklists

(b) dated observation notes

(c) reading running records

(d) alternate ranking of student in the class

60. When a child has difficulty with phonemic awareness because he/she cannot put sounds together to form a word (for example, /I/ /-n/ and the student can’t put the sounds together and say the word "in" ),this child needs help in the area of:

(a) segmentation

(b) manipulation

(c) blending

(d) rhyming

61. When a child has difficulty with phonemic awareness because he/she has difficulty in hearing the sounds in a word (for example, the word "man" is said and the student can’t say the sounds /m/ /-a/ /-n/), this child needs help in the area of:

(a) segmentation

(b) manipulation

(c) blending

(d) rhyming

62. When a child has difficulty with phonemic awareness because he/she has difficulty in hearing the sounds in a word (for example, the word is pink and the student is asked to take off the "p" and what word is left, "ink"), this child needs help in the area of:

(a) segmentation

(b) manipulation

(c) blending

(d) rhyming

63. All of the following statements demonstrate the importance of coding a student’s oral reading of a text, except for one:

(a) accuracy rate of word recognition

(b) reflects patterns of reading strategies utilized by the student

(c) phonemic awareness level

(d) which cueing system most utilized by the student

64. One way to make an observation of a student’s comprehension level is to have the student read a page from a text, ask a question and after the answer is given the student is requested to find the exact location in the text from which the answer was found. This comprehension strategy is called:

(a) Directed Reaching Thinking Activity

(b) Reciprocal Teaching

(c) Retelling

(d) Student Reading Interview

65. One way to make an observation of a student’s comprehension level is to have a small reading group read one page of a text. After the reading, each student is asked to think of one question he/she could ask the group from the one page. Taking turns, one student asks the question and after the answer is given by another, he/she is requested to find the exact location in the text from which the answer was found. The student, who asks the question, gives confirmation of the answer. This comprehension strategy is called:

(a) Directed Reaching Thinking Activity

(b) Reciprocal Teaching

(c) Retelling

(d) Student Reading Interview

66. One portion of a reading running record coded the following text sample after a student reading:

TEXT: A bear’s home, called a den, is where it spends most of the winter.

STUDENT: A beautiful honey, calls a cave where it snows must off the wide.Which of the following cueing systems are not being utilized by the student?

(a) Visual (Graphophonic) and meaning (Semantic)

(b) Meaning (Semantic) and Structure (Syntactic)

(c) Meaning (Semantic) and Visual (Graphophonic)

(d) Structure (Syntactic) and Visual (Graphophnic)

67. One portion of a reading running record coded the following text sample after a student reading:

TEXT: There were so many ways that it could be done.

STUDENT: Three were so many ways that it could been done.Which of the following cueing systems are being utilized by the student?

(a) Visual (Graphophonic) and meaning (Semantic)

(b) Meaning (Semantic) and Structure (Syntactic)

(c) Meaning (Semantic) and Visual (Graphophonic)

(d) Structure (Syntactic) and Visual (Graphophnic)

68. One portion of the reading running record coded the following text sample after a student reading:

TEXT: At the zoo, the children skipped through the gate.

STUDENT: At the zoo, the children skipped together the gate.Which of the following cueing systems are being utilized by the student?

(a) Visual (Graphophonic) and meaning (Semantic)

(b) Meaning (Semantic) and Structure (Syntactic)

(c) Meaning (Semantic) and Visual (Graphophonic)

(d) Structure (Syntactic) and Visual (Graphophnic)

 
69. One particular grade level has been cited as the one which can make the difference in reading success during a child’s education years. Which grade level is the most important in setting the foundation for reading, as noted in the current research?

(a) Grade 1

(b) Grade 2

(c) Grade 3

(d) Kindergarten

70. During a reading, self-corrections should be considered:

(a) an important strategy in good reading skills

(b) an impediment to comprehension

(c) a block in reading fluency

(d) disrupts the rate of words-per-minute read by the student

Domain I: Case Study Based on a Student Profile

In this section of the RICA exam, candidates receive substantial background information about a student and samples of materials illustrating the student’s reading performance. Those responding on the test are asked to assess the student’s reading performance, describe appropriate instructional strategies for the student, and explain why these strategies would be effective. The exam includes one case study, which includes content related to all four domains of the RICA content specifications and requires a written response of approximately 300 words.


Domain I: Case Studies

Case Study #1
Ramona is a student in the third grade. It is about the end of the school year. She loves to learn and is anxious to please her teaching. She is very consistent in handing-in her homework. Her parents are very involved in the school community. They are very helpful to Ramona at home with her work and they encourage her to set her sights for a college education.
Her reading grades in comprehension are not as high as her word recognition evaluations. She has a very difficult time in her retellings, even though she has just read a text at her instructional level. She is at grade level in her reading accuracy of words as she reads a text.
The attached reading running record charts her reading. A retelling of the text is as follows:


Ramona: "This story was about a cat and mice. They don’t like each other. The cat lives in the house and the mice live in a hole in a wall. And that’s it!"

Teacher: Why do you think that the mice and the cat don’t like each other?

Ramona: Because...cats eat mice.


What is your evaluation of this student’s background and the evidences that are attached to this case study? What type of literacy strategies would be effective for Ramona? What types of classroom management would aid in effecting the literacy strategies? What are some of the reading extensions that would be appropriate for Ramona’s needs (e.g. reading/writing integration opportunities)? 
 

Case Study #2
Gregory is a first grader. He’s a very active child in and out of the classroom. He enjoys games very much. He has a difficult time attending to his work.
In his classroom, he is reading in a Grade 1 level reading anthology text from the school district’s adopted reading/language arts series. Every student is reading the same story together, as a whole class group. The story he is presently reading is mainly a dialogue between five characters and has few picture clues.
Gregory also receives special attention from the school reading specialist for 30 minutes a day. His home support, along with the reading specialist is demonstrating some progress. This 1:1 attention to his reading skills is helpful, even in small increments of time. In his reading specialist time, he is reading at his instructional level with a small group. His reading recovery level is Level 11 at the end of the Grade 1 school year.
His reading running record is not at grade level. His comprehension is fine in the area of detail, and he does really well in the inferential questioning about the story. He doesn’t do well with the main idea concept. During a retelling Gregory stated:

Gregory: The story was about a chair, and a girl, and a spaceship and a dragon. And it was a good story.

Teacher: Why is there a chair in this story?

Gregory: It’s just a chair and the girl likes it so it’s on every page. I have a special chair that I like too, it’s just right for me...like in the Three Bears story!

Gauging the student’s needs along with the attached reading running level is an important intervention for this student. First grade is a pivotal point for reading success. What is your evaluation of this student’s strengths and needs? What literacy strategies would you select to improve his reading progress and why? What needed classroom management strategies would support his growth in reading?

Case Study #3
Freddee is a kindergarten student. At the half-way mark of the school year, she is still having a struggle with her letter recognition skills.


Her teacher has given her 1:1 letter recognition assessment, yet Freddee has not shown improvement. The repetition of the strategies that have been utilized have not been effective.

Her teacher has also noted that when she is reading a rhyming story, Freddee doesn’t seem to understand the concept. The other’s can finish the sentences after a rhyming pattern has been established, but Freddee doesn’t join in with the others.

She can easily follow visual demonstrations of game directions during the recess period. Her recall of the sequence of steps to a game is excellent.

Freddee’s letter recognition test is attached as an evidence. Her teacher recognizes that students’ need letter recognition skills in order to provide a successful background for reading. How can Freddee’s literacy progress be improved? Describe her needs and strengths, suggest two specific instructional strategies that might immediately assist her and provide a rationale for your selection.

Domain I Background Information
Assessment Paradigms

 

IRI

Running Record

Miscue

View of the Mistake & Nature of the Error

Correct Responses

Mistake

- fluency is goal

- should be analyzed

miscue

Neutral until analyzed by graph/phoneme

syntactic

semantic

pragmatic

Treatment

must be corrected

more rapid reading is achieved through reduction of errors by using level texts

 

Results

Frustration 75%

Instructional 80-90%

Independent 90%+

Accuracy count

Use of:

graphic

syntactic

semantic

A profile of readers strengths. Strategy and handle on reading process (graph, sign, sem, prag)

Component

Word Rec.

Short passage:

-silent

- oral

guided questions

- literal

- inferential

- main idea

- cause/effect

- sequential

- listing

- critical thinking

Readability formula

Controlled Text

Competencies

- Directionality

- Fluency

- Accuracy

- Skills

leveled text passages

read full text

oral reading

oral retelling

deviations from expected responses

Notion of Readability

sight words

automaticity

schema

skills

decoding

Depends on ability to literally know

infer

comprehend

-schema

-accurate rec. of words

-fluency

-transactive

- constructive

- pragmatically sound

- influenced by social/cultural

- must be analyze with context/:social, lingual emotional

Nature of meaning

in text

in district

in the transaction

Domain I: Focused Educational Problems and Instructional Tasks

In this section of the RICA exam, problems and tasks in educational contexts are presented and require candidates to (a) consider information about a class, a groups of students, an individual student or an instructional situation and (b) devise or proved explanations related to appropriate instructional strategies or assessment approaches. Four of these focused tasks are included on the exam. Each asses one or more competencies in one domain of the RICA Content Specifications, and there is one problem or task for each of the four domains. Problems or tasks for Domains I and IV each require a written response of approximately 50 words. Those for domains II and III each require a written response of approximately 150 words.

Domain I: Focused Educational Problems and Instructional Tasks

1.1 Stella is a student who exhibits a great interest in listening to stories during shared reading, yet she does not have any motivation to read otherwise. She often states that she doesn’t like to read. How can you assess why Stella does not like to read?

1.1 What assessments might give a teacher helpful information that could lead to sound instruction for a student who:

1.1a says she/he does not like to read?

1.1a struggles with decoding text? (grapheme/phoneme issue)

1.1b struggles with word recognition (morpheme/vocab)


1.1a Jackie really likes to read, but she has a lot of difficulty in the area of graphophonics. How can her strengths and needs best be assessed?

1.1b Mrs. Russo, a first grade teacher, has noticed that in her guided reading group

( which is below grade level) one of her students is having a difficult time with high frequency word identification. Which types of assessment would best determine Bobby’s word identification knowledge?

1.1c The following formal and informal assessment tools could be discussed within the context of students’ reading courses in order to assist them in understanding more general principles of assessment.

1.2c Mrs. Murchey has a second grade class, which ranges widely in its reading levels. Which types of assessment would be the most informational to assess the reading levels of a whole class?

1.2d Mr. McGuire is teaching a third grade class and he has a span of reading levels which he accommodates through flexible guided reading groups. In order to monitor progress of his students, what type of assessment schedule would serve the students best?

1.2e Effective teaching of reading involves the ongoing gauging of student progress. Which various types of assessment/evaluation may be conducted with students?

1.2f In order to assess the comprehension levels of her students, Miss Nguyen needs to administer an evaluation/assessment tool. Which choices does she have?

1.2g Mrs. Lin has found that the reading anthology text is not meeting the needs of each of her students. She has decided to use support texts for those students who still need more reading support measures. Which informal and formal measures would best indicate the instructional, independent or frustrational reading level for each of her students?

1.2h The students in Miss Lee’s classroom are very active readers. She has a lot of concern for not having enough time to do a full miscue analysis or reading running record with each student on a daily basis. What are some useful informal measures that she can utilize on a daily basis to measure her students’ instructional, independent and frustration levels?

1.3 Mr. Sanchez has just completed his assessment of his students’ reading levels. He is now ready to implement the plans to meet the needs of his students in his instructional planning. Discuss some of the classroom management and literacy strategies that could be planned for his class to meet his students reading levels.

1.3a As a new teacher, Ms. Fredericks is asked to keep the grade level expectations in mind for her students who need interventions in order to reach these goals. Which resources would be helpful in giving her grade level information?

1.3b Miss Eide is asked by her principal to make sure that she knows which students are not on grade level in reading. What key resources and literacy strategies would aid Miss Eide in gauging her students’ grade level in the subject area of reading?

1.3c After a teacher is aware of the district/state standards for a particular grade level, it is her responsibility to apply interventions for those students who are not working at grade level expectations. What types of interventions should a teacher take to help an at-risk student?

1.3d In the classroom of Mr. Castillo, about half of his students in the third grade have been individually assessed, by a reading running record, and have been found to be at the emergent level of reading. Which literacy strategies would be the most effective to implement for students at this level?

1.3e In the classroom of Mrs. Wallace, about half of her students in the third grade have been individually assessed, by a reading running record, and have been found to be at the instructional level of reading. Which literacy strategies would be the most effective to implement for students at this level?

1.3f In the classroom of Mr. Wilson, about half of his students in the second grade have been individually assessed, by a reading running record, and have been found to be at the fluent level of reading. Which literacy strategies would be the most effective to implement for students at this level?


1.3g Rodney is having difficulty in recalling the new vocabulary that he learns for each new story. He doesn’t seem to have much recall for identifying the words once they are used again in another text reading. Which literacy strategies would be helpful for Rodney?
1.3h After assessing a student’s word identification abilities, Ms. Clark has many instructional strategies that she can implement. Discuss some that she may use for this particular student’s need.
1.3i After a phonics inventory, a student is assessed with a low recognition of the sound-symbol concepts. The teacher should implement strategies to meet this need. Which types of strategies would be effective in this area of need?

1.3j Wendy is having a lot of trouble with understanding what she has read. She has no trouble with reading the words of a text, but she has minimal recall of comprehension elements. Which types of instructional strategies would be best to meet Wendy’s needs?

1.3 It is parent conference time at your school site. You have been accumulating important information for each student. What types of student work would aid the parents in understanding a student’s progress? How would you organize the student work?

1.3e Miss Ramirez is a first teacher and she has been trained to assess the reading levels of her students. She has tried many interventions and re-assessments in her own classroom, but she feels that she needs some outside help with further evaluation of his particular student’s needs. What type of personnel would be available at her school site to utilize as a resource?

1.3f A kindergarten teacher wants to assess his students knowledge of concepts about print. Describe some of the assessment tools he can utilize to give him this information.

1.3g.Environmental print is important to emergent readers. How can environmental print be assessed?

1.3h. Assessing the phonological awareness of students is an essential element for students in Grades K - 1. Discuss some of the ways that this can be implemented.

1.3i. A student in Mrs. Currie’s second grade class is able to regularly read the first part of a word correctly, but the student is having difficulty with middle and ending sounds. What types of literacy strategies would you utilize to meet this student needs?

1.3j. Ellie rereads a sentence for the purpose of constructing meaning. After she makes an error in reading she self-corrects. Which types of assessment tools would give you this type of information about a student? Explain the procedures of each assessment tool listed.


1.3k. The usage of individual student assessment tools to evaluate a students reading is an essential element of identifying a student’s reading strategies that are used and not used. Name and describe an assessment instrument which codes a student’s oral reading and provides information to guide a teacher’s instruction.

1.3l. Mr. Larson has just shared a story with his class. He would like to gauge each student, in his small reading group, for oral story comprehension. What would be some ways to evaluate each student individually?

1.3m. In consideration of the language arts standards established by California’s School Board, the S.T.A.R/SAT - 9, Form T has been instituted for all students in Grades 2-11 in this state. Which other types of student reading assessments would be helpful to parents when they review the reading scores from this standardized test? Why would they be helpful at the student conference?
 
1.3n. One portion of a reading running record coded the following text sample after a student reading:

TEXT: A bear’s home, called a den, is where it spends most of the winter.
STUDENT: A beautiful honey, calls a cave where it snows must off the wide.

Analyze the student response, describing a strength or weakness. Describe one or two strategies that would be effective to meet this student’s needs and explain why.

2.1 In the language arts, daily planning is an important part of implementing a purposeful and focused program. Which language arts blocks would be essential in planning for effective literacy instruction?

2.2 As a teacher in the primary grades (Grades K-2), language arts organization and management of instruction is important. Describe a typical reading/language arts block.