Domain II: Phonological and Other Linguistic
Processes Related to Reading


There are approximately 65-70 multiple choice questions on the RICA exam. These include both content questions, in which knowledge about reading and reading instruction is directly assessed, and contextualized question that assess the candidate’s ability to apply specific knowledge, to analyze specific problems, or to conduct specific tasks related to reading instruction. Approximately 30% of the question assess competencies in Domain II.

Domain II: Phoneme Awareness and Systematic Phonics Instruction

1. One of the more difficult phonemic awareness activities is:

a. blending

b. rhyming

c. segmentation

d. sound addition and substitution.

2. One of the easiest phonemic awareness activities is:

a. blending

b. rhyming

c. segmentation

d. sound addition and substitution.

3. An example of an effective phonemic awareness activity is:

a. presenting an oral activity

b. doing a mini lesson

c. reading a wordplay book

d. all of the above.

4. The alphabetic principle is important for:

a. learning to write

b. learning to read

c. learning the alphabet

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

5. The most powerful predictor of later reading achievement is:

a. a knowledge of phonics

b. a knowledge of the alphabet

c. phonemic awareness

d. a concept of print.

6. In the word church, "ch" is an example of:

a. a consonant digraph

b. a consonant blend

c. an onset

d. a and c

e. b and c

7. Lisa has no concept of rhyme. A good teaching strategy for Lisa would be:

a. phonemic awareness activities

b. a phonics mini lesson

c. reading a story

d. a and b

e. all of the above

8. Reading materials used for phonics programs have

a. high frequency words

b. decodable words

c. predictable words

d. all of the above.

9. According to Marilyn Adams, an essential component of a primary balanced reading program is:

a. literature

b. language experience

c. phonics

d. none of the above.

10. Recognizing that the "k" sound in black is a consonant digraph is an example of:

a. structural analysis

b. morphology

c. etymology

d. phonetic analysis.

11. An example of a vowel generalization is:


a. a dipthong

b. a digraph

c. CVC

d. a schwa.


12. The "a" in far is an example of

a. a short vowel

b. an r-controlled vowel

c. a long vowel

d. a schwa.

13. Sight words are high frequency words that should be

a. recognized in one second

b. recognized in 20 seconds

c. sounded out

d. defined in a sentence.

14. Ellen is a word by word reader. To develop her fluency, you try the following:

a. rereading

b. choral reading

c. LEA

d. a and b

e. all of the above.

15. The "c" is cat is an example of:

a phoneme

b. a grapheme

c. an onset

d. b and c

e. all of the above

16. In the word transportation, recognizing the root, prefix, and suffix is an example of:

a. orthography

b. phonetic analysis

c. structural analysis

d. none of the above.

17. The "str" at the beginning of street is an example of:

a. a consonant digraph

b. a consonant blend

c. an onset

d. a rime.

18. To improve reading fluency, students should read books at their:

a. instructional reading level

b. independent reading level

c. frustration reading level

d. none of the above.

19. Phonemic awareness should be taught in:

a. kindergarten

b. K-2

c. K-6

d. all of the above.

20. First graders should be able to:

a. rhyme sounds

b. segment sounds

c. isolate sounds

d. blend sounds

e. all of the above.

21. Students should recognize vowel patterns such as diphthongs by:

a. Kindergarten

b. first grade

c. second grade

d. third grade

e. none of the above.

22. The following syllabication rule (VC/CV) should be used to divide:

a. teacher

b. supper

c. candle

d. apron

23. Boat is an example of

a. a vowel digraph

b. a schwa

c. a dipthong

d. a short vowel.

24. Boy is an example of:

a. a vowel digraph

b. a schwa

c. a dipthong

d. a short vowel.

25. Affixes are:

a. prefixes

b. suffixes

c. roots

d. prefixes and suffixes.

26. To teach the letters of the alphabet, which of the following is not recommended?

a. environmental print

b. labels

c. letter of the week

d. children’s names.

27. Why is teaching a letter of the week not recommended?

a. It is isolated language.

b. It takes too long.

c. It lacks authenticity.

d. None of the above.

e. All of the above.

28. The view that phonics is best taught as the complete reading program:

a. is embraced by most reading experts.

b. ignores the interrelated nature of the four cueing systems.

c. acknowledges the complexity of the reading process.

d. acknowledges that most children learn to read in different ways.

29. Instruction that focuses children’s attention on the vowel component of a syllable, including any consonants following it, is important because:

a. onsets form rhyming patterns in over 500 early primary words;

b. children make more errors decoding initial consonants than decoding vowels;

c. onsets distract children from decoding initial consonants;

d. children make more errors decoding rimes than decoding onsets.

30. When children isolate sounds in a spoken word, they are practicing:

a. segmentation

b. sound blending

c. substitution

d. rhyming.

31. The alphabetic principle is the idea that:

a. spelling is learned through alphabetical lists of important words
.
b. children are intuitively aware of letter-sound correspondence;

c. children must recognize letters of the alphabet before entering school;

d. letters represent sounds in words.

32. Systematic explicit phonics is:

a. a series of mini lessons on selected skills, when appropriate;

b. based on teachable moments;

c. daily instruction, based on students’ needs;

d. none of the above;

e. all of the above.

34. Phonics should be taught:

a. for at least one hour per day;

b. using a whole-part-whole approach;

c. in isolation

d. after phonemic awareness skills are mastered.

35. The best way to teach phonemic awareness is through:

a. decodable text

b. information books

c. ABC books

d. literature.

36. Phonics should be taught through:

a. workbooks;

b. in context through mini lessons;

c. games;

d. flash cards.

37. An activity not recommended for teaching phonics is:

a. rhyming families

b. word sorts

c. retelling

d. magnetic letters.

38. Which one of the following is not a vowel generalization?


a. VCV
b. CV
c. CVCE
d. CVC


Roberto, a first grader, is learning sight words, and his phonics skills are improving every day. His ability to rhyme words indicates that he has some level of phonemic awareness. Roberto knows most of his letters and sounds. Yet, when reading orally, he uses little expression, pauses frequently, and reads word by word.
39. Roberto has a problem with:

a. concept of print

b. decoding

c. fluency

d. sight words.

40. An effective teaching strategy for Roberto is:

a. reading easy text

b. reading on his frustration reading level

c. phonics mini lessons

d. an interactive writing lesson.

41. To develop Roberto’s level of phonemic awareness, use:

a. word banks

b. Elkonin boxes

c. dictated stories

d. journal writing.

Maria, a quiet shy seven-year-old, has just moved to the United States from Mexico. Her primary language is Spanish, and you are a monolingual English teacher. The first day in your second grade class, you notice that she is "reading" a Little Red Riding Hood book during DEAR time. She is looking at the pictures but seems to be unfamiliar with the story. When you ask her to read a page of the text in English, she stumbles over simple words such as "the" and "my." You point to "red" and ask her to tell you the word, but she is unable to sound it out.
42. What do you know about Maria?

a. She is a second language learner who needs oral language strategies in English.

b. She may or may not know how to read or write in Spanish.

c. Maria has limited phonics skills and a limited sight vocabulary.

d. All of the above.

43. What would you do to help Maria learn to read? To improve her phonics skills, you could use all of the following except:

a. an interactive writing lesson;

b. reading to her;

c. language experience;

d. mini lessons.

44. To improve Maria’s sight vocabulary, do not use:

a. word banks

b. daily writing

c. tape recorded books

d. multisensory techniques

e. workbooks.

45. When you gave Maria the Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation, she scored 2 out of 22. To improve Maria’s phonemic awareness, you should:


a. ask her to identify rhymes in poems and songs

b. use magnetic letters to identify CVC words

c. use Elkonin boxes to segment sounds;

d. none of the above.

Domain II: Concepts About Print


Kenny us a five-year-old kindergartner who shows little interest in books. His teacher has observed him in the library center during free choice time. He usually uses books as playthings, stacking them and frequently opening them to use them to build roofs over his stacks of books.
Whenever he does open a book he usually looks at the picture on one page briefly and then closes the book again. During times when the teacher reads aloud Kenny listens for a few minutes but then is distracted by the children around him.

 
1. Kenny is showing signs of

a. learning disabilities

b. attention deficit disorder

c. little experience with reading books

d. phonemic unawareness

2. An appropriate assessment for Kenny’s teacher to use with him would be


a. concepts about print

b. running records

c. informal reading inventory

d. sight word assessment


3. An appropriate instructional strategy (or strategies) for Kenny would be

a. guided reading

b. shared reading

c. 1 X 1 read aloud

d. b & c

e. a & b

4. When reading aloud with Kenny, the teacher should

a. discuss the illustrations

b. track words with her finger

c. relate the book to his experiences

d. all of the above

5. Having an emergent reader track the words as he reads along with the teacher is important to

a. demonstrate 1 X 1 word correspondence

b. demonstrate left to right progression

c. be sure he is paying attention

d. a & b

e. b & c

6. Concepts about print include all of the following except

a. recognizing word boundaries

b. being able to track words in a sentence from left to right

c. knowing how to spell simple words

d. knowing the purpose of punctuation

e. recognizing upper- and lower- case letters

7. Recognizing word boundaries is supported by

a. pointing to individual words as they are read

b. calling attention to spacing during interactive writing

c. calling attention to spacing during modeled writing

d. a & b

e. all of the above


Carlos is a first grader and an English language learner who is often observed holding his book upside down during guided reading. Once the teacher helps him to turn the book right side up he seems to be able to follow along, tracking from left to right but doesn’t know many sight words. He is still working in a level one book and not making much progress.


8. Which of the following instructional strategies is (are) appropriate for Carlos?

a. oral language activities to build English speaking vocabulary.

b. use of realia and hands-on experiences related to the texts prior to reading them

c. 1 X 1 read aloud

d. shared reading

e. all of the above

9. Because Carlos often holds the book upside down, we should assess his

a. visual acuity

b. concepts about print

c. attention span

d. IQ

10. To be successful in learning to read in first grade, Carlos is probably going to need

a. short, frequent guided reading lessons

b. a peer tutor

c. psychological testing

d. all of the above

11. In addition to reading instruction, Carlos’ teacher should be providing daily

a. word play

b. modeled writing

c. English language development activities

d. oral language experiences

e. all of the above

12. Shared reading is used to

a. model reading from left to right

b. master new sight vocabulary

c. give individual reading practice

d. a & b

e. all of the above

13. Knowledge of concepts about print in a beginning kindergartner is a strong indicator that

a. the child has been read to

b. the child is gifted

c. the child can read

d. a & b

e. b & c

 
Miss Garcia is teaching a shared reading lesson using the big book Caps for Sale. She is using a pointer to point to each word as she and the children read in unison.


14. When she points to each word with the pointer she is modeling

a. 1 X 1 word correspondence

b. left to right progression

c. word boundaries

d. reading of sight words

e. all of the above

15. When she discusses illustrations and points to objects in pictures as she names them she is modeling

a. word meaning

b. a cueing system

c. art appreciation

d. a & b

e. a & c

16. When she points to an exclamation point, talks about its use and models reading the sentences with excitement, she is modeling

a. conventions of print

b. proofreading

c. a & c

d. all of the above

17. When she asks a child to come up and frame a word, she is focusing on

a. concept of word

b. phonics

c. word boundaries

d. a & c

e. all of the above

18. When she points out the quotation marks in the refrain, "Caps! Caps for sale!" and asks the children who is talking, she is focusing on

a. conventions of print

b. punctuation usage

c. reading fluency

d. a & b

e. b & c

19. A child who writes MIDGZBG. (My dog is big.) in his journal is demonstrating all of the following concepts about print except

a. left to right progression

b. punctuation usage

c. word order

d. word boundaries

e. sound/symbol relationships

20. When a child writes I lik dogs. in his journal he is demonstrating which of the following concepts about print?

a. left to right progressions

b. punctuation usage

c. word order

d. word boundaries

e. all of the above

21. When a child writes I2TEPQB (I saw a funny clown at the circus last Saturday) in his journal, he is demonstrating which of the following concepts about print?

a. left to right progression

b. punctuation usage

c. word order

d. word boundaries

e. all of the above

22. A child who reads, "Humpty Dumpty sat on a big tall wall." when looking at the text, "Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall." is demonstrating lack of which of the following?

a. left to right progression

b. 1 X 1 correspondence

c. punctuation usage

d. comprehension

e. all of the above

23. Interactive writing provides opportunities for the modeling and practice of which of the following concepts about print?

a. left to right progression

b. punctuation usage

c. capitalization usage

d. word boundaries

e. all of the above

24. Using a chart with the words to a song, pointing to the words as they are sung, provides modeling of which of the following?

a. capitalization usage

b. punctuation usage

c. 1 X 1 word correspondence

d. reading with expression

e. all of the above

25. Having a child point out the title and author before reading a book is reinforcing

a. conventions of print

b. mechanics of print

c. concepts about print

d. school to work connections

e. all of the above

26. Discussing the name and uses of the punctuation mark called a period with kindergarten students is

a. focusing on conventions of print

b. premature

c. teaching vocabulary

d. a & b

e. a & d

27. A child who is reading at level seven at the end of first grade is considered to be reading

a. below grade level

b. at grade level

c. above grade level

d. gifted

28. Word boundaries are defined as

a. the length of words

b. the beginning and endings of words

c. the spaces before and after words

d. all of the above

e. none of the above

29. The terms letter, word, and sentence are best taught in the context of

a. journals

b. shared reading

c. a sorting game

d. a phonics lesson

e. all of the above

30. The terms comma, period, and exclamation point are best taught in the context of

a. interactive writing

b. read aloud

c. sorting game

d. a & b

e. b & c


Domain II: Spelling Multiple Choice


1. First grade Jessica wrote this sentence: I liek too ride mie bike wid mie freind on Sundae. (I like to ride my bike with my friend on Sunday.) At what stage of invented spelling are most of her incorrect spellings?

a. prephonetic

b. semi-phonetic

c. phonetic

d. transitional

e. conventional

2. First grade Juan wrote this sentence: The beg bk dog r re djrs. (The big black dogs are very dangerous.) At what stage of invented spelling are most of his incorrect spellings?

a. prephonetic

b. semi-phonetic

c. phonetic

d. transitional

e. conventional

3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of phonetic spellers?

a. Children represent all essential sound features of a word in spelling.

b. Children misapply spelling rules.

c. Children choose letters on the basis of sound without regard for English letter sequences.

d. Children ignore inflectional endings the they don’t pronounce.

e. none of the above.

4. Which of the following is not a characteristic of transitional spellers?

a. Children adhere to basic conventions of English orthography.

b. Children reverse the order of letters in words.

c. Children use a high percentage of correctly spelled words.

d. Children use morphological and visual information in addition to phonetic information.

e. none of the above.

5. At which stage of invented spelling do students become aware of the alphabetic principle and use abbreviated spellings to represent words?

a. prephonetic

b. semi-phonetic

c. phonetic

d. transitional

e. conventional

6. At which stage of invented spelling do students use scribbles and write randomly on a page?

a. prephonetic

b. semi-phonetic

c. phonetic

d. transitional

e. conventional

7. At which stage of invented spelling do students apply the basic rules of the English orthographic system and spell more than 90% of words correctly?

a. prephonetic

b. semi-phonetic

c. phonetic

d. transitional

e. conventional

8. Which statement is true of invented spelling?

a. Children use invented spellings because they haven’t been taught phonics.

b. Children continue to use some invented spellings throughout the elementary grades.

c. Children should not be allowed to use invented spellings after first grade.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

9. Which of the following statements is not true of spelling?

a. Students apply phonics knowledge when they spell.

b. Weekly spelling tests are the best way to teach spelling.

c. Students need to learn visual and morphological information about spelling.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

10. Which of the following statements is not true of poor spellers?

a. Poor spellers tend to be poor readers.

b. Poor spellers are likely to use a "sounding-out" strategy.

c. The errors that poor spellers make are characteristic of the phonetic stage.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

11. Which of the following statements is true of good spellers?

a. Good spellers tend to be good readers.

b. Good spellers use a variety of spelling strategies.

c. The errors that good spellers make are characteristic of the transitional sage.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

12. Which of the following activities is not appropriate for transitional stage spellers?

a. Encouraging students to sound-out word.

b. Teaching root words and affixes.

c. Encouraging students to visualize words.

d. Teaching syllabication rules.

e. Explaining etymologies of words.

13. Which of the following activities is not appropriate for semi-phonetic stage spellers?

a. Teaching consonant sounds.

b. Encouraging students to sound-out words.

c. Teaching high frequency words.

d. Using interactive writing.

e. Copying sentences from the chalkboard.

14. Which of the following activities is not appropriate for prephonetic stage spellers?

a. Teaching consonant sounds.

b. Encouraging students to "scribble-write."

c. Teaching vowel sounds.

d. Teaching letters of the alphabet.

e. Encouraging students to use a crayon when they draw and a pencil when they write.

15. Which of the following is not a high frequency word?

a. what

b. little

c. the

d. animal

e. said

16. Why is it important to teach students high frequency words?

a. These words are used so commonly.

b. these words are phonetically regular.

c. These words are the only words that first graders should learn.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

17. Which of the following activities are recommended as an important component of spelling instruction?

a. daily reading and writing opportunities

b. word walls

c. minilessons on spelling patterns

d. none of the above

e. all of the above

18. Why are daily reading opportunities an important component of spelling instruction?

a. Reading helps students learn the visual shapes of words.

b. Reading enriches students’ vocabularies.

c. Reading develops students’ phonics skills.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

19. Why is teaching students how to proofread an important component of spelling instruction?

a. So students can write more legibly.

b. So students can write more fluently.

c. So students can correct misspelled words.

d. a and b.

e. all of the above.

20. Which of the following is not a recommended component of weekly spelling tests?

a. pretests

b. a multi-sensory study strategy

c. writing words in sentences

d. final spelling tests

e. all of the above

21. Why are pretests an important component of spelling instruction?

a. A pretest is an advanced organizer.

b. Students learn best by taking a test.

c. Students identify the words they already know how to spell.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

22. What is the best way for students to practice their spelling words?

a. Using a multi-sensory study strategy.

b. Writing words 50 times each;

c. Using the words in a story.

d. Reading the words 5 times each.

e. Learning the meaning of the words.

23. Which of the following is morphological information that spellers use?

a. -ing, -ed, and other inflectional endings

b. root words

c. prefixes and suffixes

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

24. Why is it useful for spellers to know the etymology of a word?

a. Because spelling patterns vary from language to language.

b. Because knowing the number of syllables aids in spelling the word.

c. Because knowing the phonological respelling of a word aids in spelling the word.

d. none of the above.

e. all of the above.

25. Third grade Moua is an English language learner who rarely uses inflectional endings in her speech or in writing. Which of the following instructional practices should her teacher not use?

a. Teach minilessons on inflectional endings.

b. Help Moua correct errors in her writing during editing.

c. Model how to pronounce endings.

d. Understand that her problem is typical and ignore it.

e. Do word sorts.

26. Sixth grade Luis loves to write long, detailed informational books about race cars, but he misspells 20-25% of words that he writes, both high frequency words and content words like engine. His spelling is characteristic of the transitional stage. Which of the following instructional practices is most appropriate for Luis?

a. teach proofreading

b. provide daily writing opportunities

c. teach phonics

d. teach affixes and root words

e. none of the above

27. Ms. Rodriguez has five first graders who spell at the prephonetic stage. Which of the following assessments would be appropriate?

a. phonemic awareness tests

b. writing samples

c. concepts about print tests

d. sentence dictation

e. reading sight words

28. Referring to question 27, Ms. Rodriguez wants to design a series of minilessons for these students. Which activity would not be appropriate?

a. interactive writing

b. sorting objects by initial sounds

c. teaching one letter each week

d. using magnetic letters

e. making alphabet books

29. To-two-too is an example of a _____ .

a. homophones

b. homographs

c. homophobes.

d. synonyms

e. antonyms.

30. Mrs. Jones is a fifth grade teacher who is concerned that many of her students make homophone spelling errors by choosing the wrong homophone. Which of the following is not an appropriate instructional practice?

a. teach minilessons on homophones.

b. brainstorm with students lists of homophones.

c. put homophones on weekly spelling tests.

d. create a class homophone book.

e. none of the above.

31. Mr. Johnson wants to teach dictionary skills to his third graders. His students already know how to alphabetize to the third letter and can use word walls that are alphabetized. They don’t use the dictionaries in their classroom. Which of the following is not an appropriate instructional practice?

a. Teach a minilesson on the importance of using the dictionary.

b. Teach a strategy for locating unfamiliar words in the dictionary.

c. Give students a list of 20 words to look up in the dictionary and write the page number on which the word is located.

d. Use dictionaries during editing.

e. Play a game in which students look up unfamiliar words from a book they are reading in a dictionary and report back to the class.

Domain II: Focused Educational Problems and Instructional Tasks


In this section of the RICA exam, problems and tasks in educational contexts are presented and require candidates to (a) consider information about a class, a groups of students, an individual student or an instructional situation and (b) devise or proved explanations related to appropriate instructional strategies or assessment approaches. Four of these focused tasks are included on the exam. Each assesses one or more competencies in one domain of the RICA Content Specifications, and there is one problem or task for each of the four domains. Problems or tasks for Domains I and IV each require a written response of approximately 50 words. Those for domains II and III each require a written response of approximately 150 words.

Domain II—Focused Educational Problems and Instructional Tasks

1. What is the difference between phonics and phonemic awareness?

2. Define systematic, explicit phonics:

3. How should spelling be taught? Include at least five components of an effective spelling program.

4. Explain the language cueing systems:

5. Define onset and rime:

6. What is the difference between phonetic and structural analysis?

7. Define the alphabetic principle and why it is important:

8. List the stages of phonemic awareness from easiest to most difficult:


9. What type of text is used in phonics program and why?

10. Name five skills that could be included in a first grade phonics checklist:

11. What knowledge about phonology do children need before they "break the code"?

12. Which phonics concepts are most important for children to learn?


13. Describe components of an effective phonics program.

14. Describe the various levels of a concept of print or print awareness.

15. Describe the stages of invented spelling (with at least two characteristics per stage).

16. Why is invented spelling useful?

17. How does invented spelling help children to learn phonics?

18. Why are phonics generalizations useful?

19. What are five of the most useful phonics generalizations?

20. Why should students learn the 100 most frequently used words in the English language?

21. What are three strategies for spelling unfamiliar words?

22. Identify and describe two ways a teacher can help children develop phonemic awareness.

23. What is the difference between the alphabetic principle and phonemic awareness? Explain how each is important in learning to read.

24. Define "concepts about print."

25. Why are Elkonin boxes used in beginning reading instruction?

26. How can students develop fluency?

27. What is the most useful syllabication rule?

28. What are some examples of phonics mini-lessons?

29. What is the difference between "rime" and "rhyme?"

30. What is the purpose of a word wall?

31. What is the controversy about spelling instruction?

32. What is the goal of phonemic awareness activities?

34. What are other names for invented spelling?

35. Why is syllabication useful?


 
Domain II: Case Study Based on Student Profile

In this section of the RICA exam, candidates receive substantial background information about a student and samples of materials illustrating the student’s reading performance. Candidates are asked to assess the student’s reading performance, describe appropriate instructional strategies for the student, and explain why these strategies would be effective or task for each of the four domains. The exam contains one case study, which includes content related to all four domains of the RICA Content Specifications and requires a written response of approximately 300 words.
     
MARIA
Maria, a quiet shy seven-year-old, has just moved to the United States from Mexico. Her primary language is Spanish, and you are a monolingual English teacher. The first day in your second grade class, you notice that she is "reading" a Little Red Riding Hood book during DEAR time. She is looking at the pictures, but seems to be unfamiliar with the story. When you ask her to read a page of the text, she stumbles over simple words such as "the" and "my." You point to "red" and ask her to tell you the word, but she is unable to sound it out. What do you know about Maria and what instructional strategies do you recommend and why?

KHAM
Kham's primary language is Lao. You are a monolingual first grade English teacher. She can decode well, knows many sight words, and is able to segment most of the sounds on the Yopp-Singer. Her concept of print is average for a first grader. She understands the alphabetic principle. However, when asked to do a retelling of a story she has just read, Kham is able to recall very little. What do you know about Kham and what instructional strategies do you recommend and why?

ROBERTO
Roberto, a first grader, is learning sight words, and his phonics skills are improving every day. His ability to rhyme words indicates that he has some level of phonemic awareness. Roberto knows most of his letters and sounds. He is able to read in a Level 5 reader; however, his reading is very choppy. Roberto uses little expression, pauses frequently, and tends to read word by word. What do you know about Roberto and what instructional strategies do you recommend and why?

MARK
Mark, an active fourth grader, is able to read and comprehend at the fourth grade instructional level. Although he would rather be riding his bike or playing Nintendo, he enjoys reading in his free time, especially Goose Bump books. However, Mark struggles during Writer's Workshop. When asked to write in his journal, he only produces a few sentences. You notice that there are many misspelled words. What do you know about Mark and what instructional strategies do you recommend and why?

LORI
When Lori arrives at school the first day of kindergarten, she goes over to the reading corner and picks up the wordless picture book, Good Dog, Carl. Sitting down on the rug, she begins to look at the book. You notice that she holds it upside down at first, and skips around, looking at the pictures from back to front. When you ask her to tell you about the story, she says very little except that the book is about a dog and a baby. When you ask Lori to write her name, she writes a letter that resembles "L" and then draws circles on the rest of the page. What do you know about Lori and what would you do?