David O. Stine
The personnel department of the school district office plays a vital role in establishing the culture of the organization and in maintaining its morale. It is not uncommon for 85 percent of a school district budget to be spent on personnel and fringe benefits (See Figure 6.1). Employees range from part-time hourly staff to executives, providing services ranging from transportation and food service to teaching and business management. The functions of the personnel office can be separated into four broad areas: (1) staffing and human resource planning, (2) employee maintenance, (3) operational management, and (4) employee separation.
The initial step in staffing is the establishment of employee staffing standards for all three kinds of employees: classified, certificated, and management (see Table 6.1). These standards may differ according to the job function, but the critical end product is the development of a district authorized position list (APL). This is an agreed-upon list of positions, approved by the district administration, that conforms to school district budget limitations. Good personnel practices dictate that only those positions listed on the APL should be filled. The supporting data necessary for developing this list includes job description, salary range and approximate placement, and assignment location. The significance of this list is that it helps manage district resources by identifying the number and kind of personnel needed for the efficient operation of the district. A complete
master list is kept at the district level; each school maintains its own site APL. See Table 6.2 for a sample of an APL for a typical middle school.
In addition to the position and number of employees, the names and contract salaries are included on the APL. For purposes of financial forecasting, the steps will determine annual salary increments needed for subsequent years. A step is usually allocated for each year of service. Most districts vary in the number of steps on their salary schedules. A common practice for management and classified staff is to have between three and five steps, while the average for certificated staff is between 10 and 13 steps. The comments section of the APL can be utilized to designate positions where employees serve part-time at more than one site or those positions that are funded by categorical programs (e.g., Chapter I). Positions in gardening services, maintenance, cafeteria, and transportation would be listed only on the site APL if they are directly supervised by the site administrators.
Although the development of the APL includes the involvement of the personnel and business divisions, the composition of the list must be established by the instructional program. The instructional program which implements the district mission should reflect the kinds of special programs that are provided in addition to the basic educational program. Examples of special programs include a district emphasis on reading, computers, fine arts, sex education, or vocational training. As a particular area is recommended by staff and approved by the board, these positions would be created and become a part of the overall planning process. Other personnel that need to be considered are substitutes, summer school assignments, intersession and extracurricular assignments for year-round schools. The APL is based on district need. Positions are filled after the availability of resources is verified.
Since teachers represent the largest single group of employees, districts must train and recruit substitute teachers. One strategy to attract substitutes is to consider them first for staff vacancies. With year-round schools, many teachers who are off-track request substitute duty in their own schools to supplement their incomes. A list of available candidates for substituting should be available for aides, clerical positions, bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and custodians. Management staff seldom utilize a substitute unless a long-term absence is expected.
Summer school assignments are usually provided for in the formal agreement between the teachers and the district or collective bargaining contract, and are offered to existing employees of the district, while extracurricular assignments are filled from site personnel first. Examples of extracurricular assignments include advisors to student council, yearbook, journalism, academic decathlon, mock trial, band director, choral music director, and athletic coaching assignments. The rationale for these positions is that they serve students with special interests and talents who participate in activities beyond the school day. The advisors are usually paid a specific stipend and serve one year at a time. The assignment is not protected as part of teacher tenure.
The list of extracurricular assignments usually relate to secondary schools and would include department chairs. Elementary schools may have grade level coordinators or team leaders, though their assignments are typically not as formalized as those at the secondary level.
The recruitment process may take several forms. In addition to job announcements being sent to university placement offices, recruiting trips in and out-of-state have become common. The shortage of teachers in math, science, and special education has been critical. County schools offices and some larger districts have promoted job fairs where a number of positions are available and applicants have the opportunity to shop for positions. Although the job fair approach has been successful, a negative feature of recruitment trips has been the job hopping of some teachers. Having been hired through an out-of-state recruiting trip, the teacher works for a year in that district and then job hops to greener pastures in a neighboring district.
One of the most effective strategies currently being used for out-of-state recruiting is to include a teacher who was recruited the previous year as a member of the team. The teacher receives a trip home and his or her influence on former classmates can be powerful.
The interview may take place during a recruitment trip or it may occur in the school district. The most preferable interview is one that can be held at the school site. Common practice is for the principal to take a leadership role during the interview and to include one or more faculty members from the same grade level or subject area being considered. This cooperative effort benefits both the applicant and the staff by giving the staff some ownership of the decision and the applicant a first-hand look at the program and colleagues. Interviewing at the school also gives the applicant an opportunity to see the neighborhood and the school facility.
When there is more than one applicant being interviewed on the same day for the same position, there are several guidelines that might be helpful:
1. Applications and resumes. Be certain that all interviewers have the opportunity to review the applications, professional papers, and resumes.
2. Timing. Space the interviews with at least 10 minutes between applicants to allow for the completion of rating forms and preparation for the next candidate.
3. Applicant limit. Do not interview more than seven individuals in a single day. When more applicants are interviewed, it becomes increasingly difficult to differentiate among candidates.
4. Closure. Provide time for the interview team to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each candidate before making a recommendation to the personnel office.
It is recommended that all staff members participating in the selection process be available for all candidates. It is very disruptive if an interviewer sees only some of the applicants. A second recommendation is that a standard list of questions be used for all applicants. This will ensure continuity for the selection committee and will provide all interviewees an equal opportunity. When the committee considers the list of acceptable applicants, efforts need to be made to include minority candidates. Every district needs to develop a work force that reflects the cultural diversity of the student population.
One final step is to check the references of final candidates. It is typically the responsibility of the personnel office to screen applications and review credentials so that unqualified candidates are not under consideration. In some cases, both the district and the site administrator are encouraged to follow-up on references.
These procedures are designed for the selection of new employees, whether teachers or other personnel. There are a number of additional considerations when vacancies are promotions rather than entry level positions. The applicant pool can be configured in three ways: (1) internal candidates only, (2) both internal and external candidates, and (3) external candidates only. Though there are some advantages to internal only (efficiency) and external only (avoiding internal conflict); considering both internal and external candidates can be recommended as the procedure most likely to identify the strongest and most diverse applicant pool and one that meets equal employment opportunity requirements. Occasionally, a board of education will promote an employee to a leadership position without advertising the position. Because a closed process like this can result in unnecessary questions about fairness, this practice is not recommended.
The second major personnel function is employee maintenance. This area includes wage and salary administration, fringe benefit management, classification and assignment, evaluation, and employee discipline.
The Single Salary Schedule concept for teachers initiated nationwide in 1923 is still in place and uses two basic criteria for salary enhancement: years of service and education (Webb, Greer, Montello, & Norton, 1987). Each district determines its policies for initial placement on the scale, but the concept of equity and fairness is implemented by a scale that does not differentiate between grade levels or subject assignments. The dollar difference between steps or columns varies from district to district, however, the typical range in salaries from the top salary to the beginning salary remains constant at about a two-to-one ratio. Some districts provide credit for district inservice programs, but these special units cannot be used if the teacher moves to another district. The policy of most districts is to accept only upper division or graduate credits from accredited institutions of higher education.
For many years there has been a common practice of limiting experienced candidates to five years of transfer credit for previous teaching for purposes of placement on the salary schedule. However, the teacher shortage has forced some growing districts to reconsider this position and allow greater credit.
Good personnel practices require that standard salary schedules be established for the classified service and administration. These are usually one dimensional in that they provide for salary increments for years of service only. These schedules usually are between three and five years. Initial placement is often no higher than step three.
An effective salary administration program is one with clearly defined policies that include job descriptions, salary ranges, and placement criteria. Written policies help insure the equitable treatment of all personnel.
Collective bargaining units usually want the same fringe benefits as other employee groups, but since these are all bargained for separately, there are situations where management may have a benefit package different from the classified (Education Code §45136) or certificated staff. Often classified and management staff will allow the teacher bargaining unit to negotiate their benefits, then ask for a similar consideration.
Common benefit packages will include several choices of health care plans, a vision program, dental care, and life insurance. Some districts provide a cafeteria plan where the employees are authorized a certain amount of money and can select the fringe benefits they want. If there is any unused amount, it can be allocated to a tax sheltered annuity. Most school districts provide sufficient fringe benefit dollar amounts to cover the employee's family.
The cost of health care programs has increased dramatically in the last ten years. Some districts have begun to put a limit on the amount of money the district will contribute to fringe benefit packages. When a limit is placed on the district's contribution, the employee must make up the difference in order to receive the same benefit. The carriers of the insurance programs are usually selected through a collaborative effort with the employee groups. Many districts have an insurance committee and some districts also hire an insurance broker.
Retirement systems are operated by state agencies and are required for all full-time employees. Employees and the district make contributions to the fund. Participation is transferable to other public school districts in the state. It is not uncommon for the total fringe benefit package, including retirement, to cost the district between 20 percent and 30 percent of the total school district budget.
There are three distinctive categories of public school employees: classified, certificated, and management (Education Code §44065). Classified service ranges from hourly noon aides, food service workers, and bus drivers to full-time clerical, custodial, maintenance, data processing, and accounting personnel. Districts may have as many as 50 job classifications that differentiate the education, skills, or specialties required for each position. The classified service is usually represented by one collective bargaining unit. In addition to the formal process of collective bargaining, classified personnel units and administration can agree to a reclassification study. Each position and its salary range can be evaluated to determine appropriate classification based on necessary skills, knowledge, and responsibilities. Comparisons made to other school districts and positions in industry can be a useful part of this process. The final results of a study like this can serve as the basis for salary adjustments.
Another approach to reclassification is to establish a procedure which allows for employees to petition on an individual basis. A committee of both employees and administrators can be formed to review the petitions. There are some special problems that relate to the appeal process. One is that reclassification of a position to a higher pay rate usually brings a flood of similar requests. Another is the difficulty of maintaining objectivity when the appeal committee includes fellow workers.
Certificated staff members in the bargaining unit usually include teachers, librarians, counselors, nurses, speech therapists, psychologists and all certificated staff on special assignment who are not management. Defining these special assignment positions involves the following three checks:
1. Do they serve children directly?
2. Are they placed on the teachers' salary schedule?
3. Are they members of the bargaining unit?
Examples of these non-teaching positions are Chapter I Coordinator, Drug Abuse Specialist, Staff Development Teacher, or School Improvement Program (SIP) Coordinator. Agreement between the bargaining unit and the administration determines their placement in or out of the unit. Teachers serving in these quasi-administrative positions are usually interested in administration and believe that these experiences will help them achieve their career goals.
The assignment of certificated personnel to a particular school site is usually based on need and any subsequent transfers are covered by the collective bargaining agreement. The most common procedure for transfers is to open the position to volunteers first, and if there are none, seniority is the primary consideration for involuntary transfer. A common procedure for filling positions is called Post and Bid. The opening is announced and posted throughout the district. Any teachers interested in the position would request, or bid, for it during a specified time frame. The principal of the school with the opening frequently works closely with the personnel department in making the final selection.
Assignment to a grade level, subject area, or special assignment like librarian, is determined by credential. All credentials in California are managed by the Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC). Credentials have evolved from a very general credential like the General Secondary, to a very restricted credential like the Single Subject Credential (California Teachers Association, 1988). An individual with the General Secondary credential is authorized to teach any subject in grades 7-14. The Single Subject Credential allows a person to teach in a single area (e.g., mathematics) in grades 7-12. The credentialing system is very complicated and most county schools offices have a credential specialist who can advise district employees. The county
schools office has the legal responsibility for assuring appropriate assignment of personnel.
Administrative credentialing is a two-tier process in California. A Preliminary Administrative Services Credential gives authorization for any certificated administrative position in the district. Upon appointment to a management position, administrators are required to complete a second phase of training that leads to the Professional Administrative Services Credential. This is a life certificate that has no continuing education requirement (Education Code §44270). Classified management staff are not required to have any kind of state credential.
Administrators are not part of any collective bargaining process but are part of the management team and often receive the same raises as other employees. Management frequently requests the same salary and benefit increases negotiated by other bargaining units. This is called Me Too bargaining.
Many larger districts have a nonbinding set of policies with personnel procedures for management. Included in this agreement can be salary placement, transfers, vacations, leaves, and assignments. Although these provisions look similar to collective bargaining agreements, they represent only guidelines. There are no grievance procedures or compliance dimensions.
Some districts have a policy of frequently rotating site administrators. One rationale for such transfers is called the Theory of Uneven Competencies. This concept acknowledges that every administrator has some special skills or strengths and that after serving at a particular site for a period of time, the products of these strengths will have been realized. An example might be a principal who has excellent human relations skills and great community identity. Business partnerships will be established, a timely newsletter published, and a host of volunteers provided at school each day. This principal may also have a tendency to lack attention to detail and have problems with monitoring and accounting for the budget. The theory states that a principal with budget skills is now needed at this site and the current principal is needed in another school where there is need for community and volunteer programs.
Collective bargaining agreements have guidelines that include time lines for the formal evaluation of employees. Any administrator assigned to evaluate teachers must have demonstrated competence in instructional methodologies (Education Code §35160.5). Not adhering to the evaluation time lines is subject to grievance; however, the content of the evaluation is not. The evaluation instrument should include the name of the employer, the date, and a place for both the individual and the evaluator to sign. The form should also include a space, usually at the bottom of the page, for the person being evaluated to respond. Many forms include a disclaimer that the signature of the individual being evaluated does not mean concurrence with
the evaluation but merely acknowledges receipt of the appraisal. Most contracts will include a specific time line for the employer to write a rebuttal that can be attached to the original evaluation and placed in the official personnel file.
Evaluations usually fall into three categories: (a) checklist, (b) free form, and (c) management by objectives (Webb, Greer, Montello, & Norton, 1987). The checklist is commonly used for classified staff. The basic format includes a list of performance criteria that may include quantity of work, quality of work, punctuality, cooperation, initiative, job knowledge, and dependability. Each performance can be rated as outstanding, satisfactory, or unsatisfactory. It is common practice for any area that is marked unsatisfactory to be followed by a written explanation for the unsatisfactory rating. Some districts require an explanation for outstanding ratings. In both cases where comments are required, raters are less likely to mark employees at either extreme because of the required justification. Another trend in the checklist approach is to use categories of (a) meets
district's standards or (b) does not meet standards. This approach requires that standards be developed as benchmarks from which to compare. One drawback with this method is the tendency to mark everyone as meeting standards. Evaluators also complain that they do not have an opportunity to praise outstanding performance.
The free form evaluation may be a blank piece of paper or may have a limited number of headings. The most common approach includes categories of (a) strengths, (b) areas for improvement, and (c) additional comments. Although this approach gives the evaluator much latitude and room for creativity, it is time-consuming and often results in inconsistent content from one employee to another. This form is often used with management personnel. An effective approach is to develop a form that includes both checklist and free form. Teacher evaluations are often a combination of these two varieties.
Management by Objectives (MBO) is a detailed approach that involves the prior collaboration of evaluator and employee (Webb, et al., 1987). Attainable goals are set and specific activities listed that will be used to reach these goals. This pre-evaluation conference can be a positive opportunity to address issues for individual employee improvement. It can also be used to carry out a part of the district or school mission statement or a specific instructional emphasis for a department or grade level.
A form of the MBO system has been required in California for teacher evaluations since 1983. The Stull Bill requires teachers to set achievement goals for students within a specific time frame (Education Code §44662). Goals are to be set in a conference with the supervisor and reviewed at the end of the term or year during a second conference. The entire process was part of an accountability movement but took a different form in that classroom teachers set the goals and reported the results.
One strategy used to determine the degree of common understanding of duties of a position by the employee and the supervisor is called the discrepancy model. This process includes the following steps:
1. The employee writes down the five most important responsibilities of the job.
2. Independently the supervisor does the same.
3. The third step is to meet and compare the independent perceptions and review differences.
4. The final step is to take the results and compare them with the official job description. This process can lead to a clearer understanding of job responsibilities. The discrepancy model is most often used with classified personnel.
Each district decides how frequently they will evaluate employees, but California law requires that probationary teachers be evaluated at least once a year and permanent teachers at least every other year (Prasad & Bhatnagar, 1990). Most districts prefer more frequent evaluations for both categories. Administrators are usually evaluated annually.
In addition to complying with the law, the real purpose of an evaluation system is to monitor performance and to improve employee effectiveness. During this process, the supervisor also highlights employee strengths. The most effective systems of evaluation are those that are ongoing and collaborative. One cardinal rule is there should be no surprises. Employees need to be aware of their status.
Although the time lines for evaluation are specific in most contracts, the state law requires that evaluations of certificated staff be completed in writing not later than 30 days before the last scheduled school day (Education Code §44663). However, administrators should make the process of evaluation continuous and intervene early when problems are identified. Employee discipline is needed occasionally, but effective remediation will require good communication. It is the responsibility of the supervisor to communicate to the employee both appropriate and inappropriate job performance. This simple approach will cover most employee problems from work habits like punctuality to work skills like accuracy.
Working with people to improve performance is a time-intensive process. Supervisors have a responsibility to identify deficiencies and to recommend solutions. The most effective remediation plans include those that are cooperatively developed. The plan assumes that there is agreement that a problem exists and that a solution is available. It is incumbent upon the supervisor to take the leadership in developing a workable improvement plan. One of the frequently omitted steps of an improvement plan is a time line for a follow-up conference. A summary of the steps for employee discipline might include:
1. Identify the problem.
2. Bring the problem to the employee's attention.
3. Jointly consider probable causes of the problem.
4. Collaborate on potential workable solutions.
5. Come to an agreement on the most appropriate improvement remedy.
6. Agree upon what each of you will do.
7. Set a specific time to begin and a time for a follow-up conference.
8. Monitor the progress, give feedback, and reinforce positive behavior.
9. Meet at the agreed-upon time and jointly evaluate performance.
10. Continue the process if needed or conclude the deliberations.
The improvement plan requires communication, collaboration, and time. It should be used only for problems that are significant or those that recur.
The amount and extent of supervision needs to be in proportion to the importance and severity of the problem. Many supervisors use a process known as progressive discipline. As the term implies, the supervision intensity increases as the condition deteriorates. Step one is an informal conference. A recurrence of the problem indicates the need for a formal conference. A lack of improvement would require a written memo, a formal reprimand, and an improvement plan. When an employee does not respond, these formal actions help get the individual's attention so that change can be made. Evaluations must be in writing and the employee must be given the opportunity to discuss the evaluation before the end of the school year (Education Code §44663). Disciplining an employee is not a pleasant task, but is part of the responsibility of a supervisor.
Beginning administrators should avoid personalizing an incident or employee behavior.
The functions of operational management occur at both site and district levels and include employee files, negotiations, and contract management.
The personnel office is responsible for maintaining records on all applicants, employees, and retirees. The records of applicants help document employment practices and affirmative action efforts. All interview notes and candidate rating forms should be maintained for possible future reference. Applications are legal documents and may be needed in the event of a wide variety of legal procedures (California Teachers Association, 1988).
Files also need to be kept on teachers to track approved university credits for salary purposes. All employees need to have records kept on their use of emergency leave, sick leave, and years of service. For seniority purposes, the hire date is important. Districts need to maintain seniority lists for both classified and certificated employees (California Teachers Association, 1988). Payroll records are also important and become complex when employees are able to exercise various options for fringe benefits, tax sheltered annuities, union dues, savings bonds, or United Way contributions. Employee personnel files are also maintained. These will include performance evaluations, disciplinary letters, and special recognition. Employees have the right to inspect their own personnel file. There should not be any document in the official file that the individual has not previously seen (Education Code §44031). The usual procedure to review a file is to make an appointment and to review it with a personnel administrator outside of the normal work day.
California school employees were first allowed to initiate a formal process of expressing their priorities in the Winton Act of 1965. This bill provided for an orderly process for employees to meet and confer with management. The Rodda Act was passed in 1975 (Government Code §3540) and was the first formal collective bargaining legislation for California employees. It provided for the establishment of a five member board called the Public Employment Relations Board (PERB). This agency has the responsibility to assist employee groups who want to organize. It also provides procedures for unit determination and elections to select the exclusive bargaining unit. PERB also monitors the bargaining process and deals with unfair labor practice charges. An unfair labor practice charge can be filed by any party to the contract. PERB handles such charges and is responsible for a final determination in these cases. A list of qualified staff for mediation, fact-finding, and arbitration is made available by PERB.
The collectively bargained contract is a legal document which must be adhered to by both management and employees. The site administrator has a responsibility to know the provisions of the contract and must be able to interpret it correctly. Contracts in California are usually the maximum three years in length because this gives the union organization security and provides a measure of stability for both sides.
During the contract period both sides usually make it a practice to gather data on incidents or policies which, from their point of view, need to be negotiated at the end of the contract. Salaries and fringe benefits are always considered. The scope of negotiations also includes hours and conditions of employment. It is usual that most districts with a multiple-year contract will agree to reopeners on salary and fringe benefits, and a limited number of items from each side. This practice provides flexibility in uncertain economic times. Each year during the contract both parties would have a mini negotiation and would only deal with the few items agreed upon. The rest of the total contract would remain intact.
The employee practices of a public school must deal with the employees during their employment and during their transition from service. Employee separation includes resignation, termination, and retirement (California Teachers Association, 1988).
Resignation needs to be a formal act in writing submitted to the board of education. Since it must be acted upon by the board, it must be submitted in time to be placed on the agenda of a regular meeting. When the board takes action, the resignation has been formally accepted. Between the time the employee has decided to leave until the board acts, the personnel administrator should meet with the employee and provide information about retreat rights, fringe benefits, and deferred compensation. Employees serving under contract can resign only if released from their contracts. Many districts have a policy to release an individual as soon as a suitable replacement can be found. Of course, each individual case is different and will depend on a variety of circumstances including the position and the time of year.
Teachers are covered by the provisions of tenure, which guarantee that they can only be released for cause and that they must be afforded due process of law (Prasad & Bhatnagar, 1990). In California, teachers become permanent or tenured after two consecutive years of service. Administrators also become tenured after two consecutive years of service but are tenured as teachers rather than administrators. Teachers in their first two years can be released without a reason and without due process.
The law also provides specific deadline dates for notification to employees that their services are no longer needed. All administrators with principal in their titles must be notified by March 1 that their administrative contract will not be renewed July 1. Most site administrators serve on a year-to-year contract. All other administrators, nontenured teachers, or other certificated support staff must be notified by March 15 that their services are no longer required. Superintendents usually have multiple-year contracts which can extend as long as four years. Classified staff and managers who are classified as permanent employees need only be given a thirty day notice.
In uncertain times there are also provisions for reduction in force (RIF). The three reasons for a RIF are declining student enrollment, reduction in funds, or program elimination. The board of education can reduce personnel for any of these reasons and employees are notified accordingly of their status for the subsequent year. Notifications are made by reverse seniority or by program.
All full-time employees in California public education are required to participate in a state retirement program. All certificated employees belong to the State Teachers Retirement System (STRS) and all classified employees are in the Public Employment Retirement System (PERS). In each case both the employee and the employer are required to contribute to the funding of the programs. The state general fund is also used to make the systems remain actuarially sound. Some employees are also covered by the Medicare provision of Social Security. In both of the state retirement systems, employees must serve five years to be vested and to become eligible for retirement. Individuals must be at least age 55. The amount of retirement compensation is determined by years of service and previous compensation.
Many districts have developed recognition programs for years of service and many local service clubs honor retiring educators. There are also provisions in the law that allow retired certificated employees to work in education on a limited basis. Many retired teachers serve as substitute teachers to supplement their incomes.
Most of what we do in schools is dependent on the personnel we employ and how effective they are in their jobs. Because so many of our resources are committed to salaries, the personnel function is a critical component in administration at site and district levels.
Effective personnel practices are clearly those that are consistent with established policy. It is expected that the wide range of personnel decisions will be implemented in keeping with a carefully developed set of procedures. Personnel practices that are effective will involve a set of rules that govern how we interact with employees. Every detail of this interaction should be specified and adhered to carefully. This method not only ensures that employees will receive fair treatment, but that administrators will be assured the greatest possible chance of success. In a day when collective bargaining is the rule, to be good with people is not enough.
c. Evaluation procedures
California Teachers Association. (1992). Guide to School Law. Burlingame, CA: Author.
Harris, B. M., & Mark, B. J. (1992). Personnel administration in public education (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Holley, W. H., & Jennings, K. M. (1987). Personnel/human resource management (2nd ed.). Chicago: Dryden Press.
Prasad, R., & Bhatnagar, M. (1990). A digest of selected California laws related to certificated personnel. Burlingame, CA: Association of California Administrators.
Webb, L. D., Greer, J. T., Montello, P. H., & Norton, M. S. (1987). Personnel administration in education: New
issues and needs in human resource management. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
California Teachers Association. (1988). Guide to school law. Burlingame, CA: Author.
Education Codes of California. (1991). West's Annotated Education Codes. St. Paul, MN: West.
Government Codes of California. (1991). West's Annotated California Government Codes. St. Paul, MN: West.
Prasad, R., & Bhatnagar, M. (1990). A digest of selected California laws related to certificated personnel. Burlingame, CA: Association of California School Administrators.
Public Employees' Retirement System. (1984). Benefits for survivors. Sacramento, CA: Office of State Printing.
State Teachers Retirement System. (1990). School members 2% at 60. Sacramento, CA: Office of State Printing.
Webb, L. D., Greer, J. T., Montello, P. A., & Norton, M. S. (1987). Personnel administration in education: New issues and new needs in human resource management. Columbus, OH: Merrill.